Best Personal Trainer in Oceanside!


20 Aug


Sleep is part of each cycle in our day. We are sensitive to how much sleep we get and are aware of the bare minimum to make it through the day. Sometimes this nightly routine is not easy and sometimes it’s amazing. However, sleep apnea is a common but very serious sleep disorder among more folks than one might think. So let’s take a look a closer look at this condition.

Definitions are always a good start. Thus, “Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with untreated sleep apnea stop breathing repeatedly during their sleep, sometimes hundreds of times. This means the brain — and the rest of the body — may not get enough oxygen” (https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox). There are 2 types of this. Obstructive sleep apnea (OPA) is the more common type in which the airway is blocked and the throat collapses. Central sleep apnea is when the brain isn’t signaling the body to breathe. Communication is ineffective with the respiratory system.

Here are the common risk factors for sleep apnea:


· Being male

· Being overweight

· Being over age 40

· Having a large neck size (17 inches or greater in men and 16 inches or greater in women)

· Having large tonsils, a large tongue, or a small jaw bone

· Having a family history of sleep apnea

· Gastroesophageal reflux, or GERD

· Nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum, allergies, or sinus problems

And here are the health risks if left untreated:


High blood pressure
Heart failure, irregular heart beats, and heart attacks
Worsening of ADHD

If you have any of these symptoms, go see your doctor. From there, they might have you to do a sleep study to monitor your eye movement, heart rate, breathing, choking, and/or snoring. This may result in the following: “The treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea is continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP). CPAP is a mask that fits over the nose and/or mouth, and gently blows air into the airway to help keep it open during sleep. This method of treatment is highly effective” (https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-disorders-problems/sleep-apnea-treatment). And then, “Other methods of treating sleep apnea include: dental appliances which reposition the lower jaw and tongue; upper airway surgery to remove tissue in the airway; nasal expiratory positive airway pressure where a disposable valve covers the nostrils; and treatment using hypoglossal nerve stimulation where a stimulator is implanted in the patient’s chest with leads connected to the hypoglossal nerve that controls tongue movement as well as to a breathing sensor” (https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-disorders-problems/sleep-apnea-treatment). Other lifestyle changes like losing weight and cutting out alcohol and smoking can help.

It’s hard to argue that lack of sleep is not fun. Sadly, many of us are used to this with life’s demands. However, serious cases when sleep deprivation is continuous need to be addressed. We want our mind and body to be operating as best as possible on our fitness journeys so be sure to get those zzzzzz’s.

13 Aug

Every BODY has their own level of tolerance for pain. Sometimes we need assistance to overcome a hurt or sensation that is terribly uncomfortable say from the dentist, a surgery, or from an injury. Doctors will then prescribe medications to alleviate this discomfort, understanding this is a temporary solution for a medical need. But somehow, the use of painkillers has become an apparent problem in our habit forming society who rarely does anything in moderation. On our fitness journeys, pain can occur from injuries and setbacks, thus, let’s take a look at these pills and inspect what they do to our bodies.

Our body detects pain and tells us and boy oh boy we feel it. Here’s the low down: “When part of your body is injured, special nerve endings send pain messages back to your brain. Painkilling drugs interfere with these messages, either at the site of the injury, in the spinal cord or in the brain itself” (http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/whoami/findoutmore/yourbrain/howdodrugsaffectyourbrain/howdopainkillerswork). Aspirin and opiates are the two types which are the foundational ingredient. Aspirin comes from willow bark and it helps alleviate pain from inflammation. It helps with swelling. Opiates come from the opiate poppy and are the more dangerous form: “The most active substance in opium is morphine – named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. Codeine, a less powerful drug, is also found in opium. Both these opiates relieve pain, relax muscles and cause drowsiness. All opiates mimic your body’s own painkillers. Morphine is a very powerful painkiller, but it is also very addictive” (http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/whoami/findoutmore/yourbrain/howdodrugsaffectyourbrain/howdopainkillerswork/whatareopiates).

The reality is that when something makes us feel good, we like it and want more. Human nature at its finest. In fact, “In the last ten years, stimulant prescriptions have seen an increase from 5 million to 45 million, while opiate/opioid prescriptions grew from 30 million to 180 million” (http://drugabuse.com/). Even worse check this out: “n 2012, 259 million prescriptions for painkillers, such as Vicodin, OxyContin, and Opana, were written in the U.S. When used improperly, these legal opioid drugs can present some of the same risks as illicit heroin sold on the street. While 467,000 people in the U.S. struggled with heroin addiction in 2012, over 2 million were estimated to abuse opioid painkillers” (http://drugabuse.com/featured/the-effects-of-opiates-on-the-body/). Veins can collapse, heart lining can become infected, sedation can occur, breathing becomes slowed causing respiratory issues that can be fatal, you can actually become more sensitive to pain, and your immune system becomes suppressed. The liver is greatly damaged trying to process all this.

Pills and drugs are quick fix solutions and band aids, not part of the life style changes we are aiming to create. Know yourself and your personality when faced with pain and let your doctor know. Communication is critical. Body awareness and self-control are troublesome when tested with convenience but you are so much stronger than you think you are.

06 Aug


Debilitating headaches can really ruin a person’s day and lead to time spent in bed or even throwing up. Clients suffering from migraines have a difficult time working out during these bouts of head throbbing pain and some clients are even undergoing scientific studies to get to the bottom of the cause. So let’s check out migraines and learn more as I’m sure we all know someone who has been impacted by this terrible condition.

We should start with the basics of course. Background: “A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on just one side of the head. It’s often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can cause significant pain for hours to days and can be so severe that the pain is disabling. Warning symptoms known as aura may occur before or with the headache. These can include flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling on one side of the face or in your arm or leg” (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/symptoms-causes/dxc-20202434) .

There are actually 4 stages of a migraine and different people either experience some or all of them. (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/symptoms-causes/dxc-20202434)
1. Prodome: you feel changes to your body that serve as a warming system a migraine may be approaching. These might include stiff neck, mood changes, thirst, constipation, and/or food cravings
2. Aura: your senses seem “off” including vision, touch, and hearing
3. Attack: the actual pain, throbbing, nausea, that can last up to 72 hours during the migraine
4. Post-drome: total exhaustion after the attack

Causes vary among individuals and can be the result of genetics. Here are the most common causes (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/symptoms-causes/dxc-20202434):
• Hormonal changes in women. Fluctuations in estrogen seem to trigger headaches in many women. Women with a history of migraines often report headaches immediately before or during their periods, when they have a major drop in estrogen.
• Foods. Aged cheeses, salty foods and processed foods may trigger migraines. Skipping meals or fasting also can trigger attacks.
• Food additives. The sweetener aspartame and the preservative monosodium glutamate (MSG), found in many foods, may trigger migraines.
• Drinks. Alcohol, especially wine, and highly caffeinated beverages may trigger migraines.
• Stress. Stress at work or home can cause migraines.
• Sensory stimuli. Bright lights and sun glare can induce migraines, as can loud sounds. Strong smells — including perfume, paint thinner, secondhand smoke and others — can trigger migraines in some people.
• Changes in wake-sleep pattern. Missing sleep or getting too much sleep may trigger migraines in some people, as can jet lag.
• Physical factors. Intense physical exertion, including sexual activity, may provoke migraines.
• Changes in the environment. A change of weather or barometric pressure can prompt a migraine.
• Medications. Oral contraceptives and vasodilators, such as nitroglycerin, can aggravate migraines.

We want to be at peak performance on our fitness journeys and migraines our not on our team. But we learn to overcome and know that the show must go on, which means we need to take care of ourselves, seek treatment and help when needed, and try to avoid situations that can trigger migraines. I don’t like for folks to miss workouts ever. The community of sufferers is quite large, so I hope there comes a medical solution to this phenomenon very soon.

30 Jul

Our heart is working and pumping 24 hours per day. We know that one day it’s expiration date will come, so we want to live life in a manner that allows this point in time to be pushed back just a little bit further and further. Our heart health is vital to life in and of itself. Your target heart rate, which is applicable on our fitness journeys, can help determine the effectiveness of our exercise. We need to know if we are over-exercising or not getting enough activity at all.

Before we can know our target heart rate, we need to know our resting heart rate. This is the number of times your heart beats per minute when at rest. The ideal time to take this measure is in the morning before you get out of  bed and have just woken up. No activity has taken place and the heart is at its resting state.

According to the National Institute of Health, the average resting heart rate (http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/FitnessBasics/Target-Heart-Rates_UCM_434341_Article.jsp#.WVlHiemQzIU) :

  • for children 10 years and older, and adults (including seniors) is 60 – 100 beats per minute
  • for well-trained athletes is 40 – 60 beats per minute.

Your maximum heart rate is 220 – age. So take the value 220 and subtract your current age. From here, the American Heart Association provides the following directions to find your target heart rate (http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/FitnessBasics/Target-Heart-Rates_UCM_434341_Article.jsp#.WVlHiemQzIU) :

  • Take your pulse on the inside of your wrist, on the thumb side.
  • Use the tips of your first two fingers (not your thumb) to press lightly over the blood vessels on your wrist.
  • Count your pulse for 10 seconds and multiply by 6 to find your beats per minute. You want to stay between 50 percent to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate. This range is your target heart rate.

You would do this intermittently while you are working out.

Now use the following chart to determine how hard your heart is working. Again, this is according to the American Heart Association, who I felt was the most credible source for this blog (http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/FitnessBasics/Target-Heart-Rates_UCM_434341_Article.jsp#.WVlHiemQzIU).

In the age category closest to yours, read across to find your target heart rate. Heart rate during moderately intense activities is about 50-69% of your maximum heart rate, whereas heart rate during hard physical activity is about 70% to less than 90% of the maximum heart rate.

The figures are averages, so use them as general guidelines.

Age Target HR Zone 50-85% Average Maximum Heart Rate, 100%
20 years 100-170 beats per minute 200 beats per minute
30 years 95-162 beats per minute 190 beats per minute
35 years 93-157 beats per minute 185 beats per minute
40 years 90-153 beats per minute 180 beats per minute
45 years 88-149 beats per minute 175 beats per minute
50 years 85-145 beats per minute 170 beats per minute
55 years 83-140 beats per minute 165 beats per minute
60 years 80-136 beats per minute 160 beats per minute
65 years 78-132 beats per minute 155 beats per minute
70 years 75-128 beats per minute 150 beats per minute

In college my basketball coach put heart rate monitors on us to see how much effort we were really giving. A chart vs actual human activity taking into account no other factors, is up to discretion. But we know what our BODY can do and if your goal is to push your rate and be motivated by staying in a specific training zone, then monitoring your target heart rate can be an effective strategy on your fitness journey.


23 Jul


We live in a food centered society that’s for sure. Every street is lined with food locations; commercials bombard our televisions; cooking is a hobby; and at least 3 times per day we think about eating. Let’s face it, we like to eat and it makes us feel good. Food has many symbolic meanings as well. This blog is even difficult to write as my stomach growls waiting for my next meal.

We know that food fuels our bodies, but it means so much more than that. Socially, food is shared and meals are eaten together. Check out this synopsis: “Food is almost always shared; people eat together; mealtimes are events when the whole family or settlement or village comes together. Food is also an occasion for sharing, for distributing and giving, for the expression of altruism, whether from parents to children, children to in-laws, or anyone to visitors and strangers. Food is the most important thing a mother gives a child; it is the substance of her own body, and in most parts of the world mother’s milk is still the only safe food for infants. Thus, food becomes not just a symbol of, but the reality of, love and security” (http://www.sirc.org/publik/food_and_eating_1.html).

We associate food with celebration and have acquired certain meals to symbolize these holidays and events. The most obvious would be the courses Thanksgiving is composed of, but think about birthday cake, hot dogs at baseball games, pizza for any occasion (haha), potlucks at work, Cinco De Mayo or St. Patrick’s Day, the list goes on and on. When I got straight A’s in school, Baskin Robbins ice cream was the reward to celebrate. A lot of these ties relate back to religious customs that most of us aren’t even aware of.

Food means prosperity. Having an extravagant feast is how kings and queens showed their affluence. The same holds true today in that we are able to impress others with the spread of choices or which location to meet and dine at. Being the host with the most holds value. So yes, even class can come into play with food. We even tend to associate eating organic as fancy compared to pre-packaged cheaper choices.

Eating truly can be an experience. When I returned from Italy, countless times I was asked about the food. And yes, the Italian food culture is different. To us, spaghetti in heaping portions is dinner, but to the Italians this is just one course and it was a smaller serving for sure. We meet our friends for lunch or drinks and the traditional date involves dinner and a movie. You get my drift. So no wonder food is a constant battle on our fitness journeys. Mind over matter. One better choice at a time. Think about food as fuel not the traditional associations. We can talk ourselves into anything is we really try.


16 Jul


Coconut oil has certainly made its debut lately on our grocery shelves, in recipes, and it’s all over the health trends we see. Recently, the media has depicted this product as actually not being “so healthy” for us, which meant I had to do some investigation. From the onset, I came into this blog with the understanding that any item in excess isn’t “good” for us and that moderation is the key (especially in a non-so-moderate lifestyle our society has created).

Let’s cover the ground work. History: “Coconut oil is made by pressing the fat from the white “meat” inside the giant nut. About 84% of its calories come from saturated fat. To compare, 14% of olive oil’s calories are from saturated fat and 63% of butters are. ‘This explains why, like butter and lard, coconut oil is solid at room temperature with a long shelf life and the ability to withstand high cooking temperatures,’ says registered dietitian Lisa Young, PhD. And it’s the reason coconut oil has a bad rap from many health officials” (http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/coconut-oil-and-health#1). The difference is that coconut oil fat is made up of triglycerides that our bodies handle differently than those found in traditional vegetable oils.

If following the standards, we are to consume no more than 13 grams of saturated fat per day. That’s the amount of 1 tablespoon of coconut oil.

Like most elements of life, there are pros and cons to the consumption of this oil. For example, “Fans of coconut oil point to studies that suggest the MCT-saturated fat in coconut could boost your HDL or ‘good’ cholesterol. This, they claim, makes it less bad for your heart health than the saturated fat in animal-based foods like cheese and steak or products containing trans fats.

But it also raises your LDL ‘bad’ cholesterol.

A quick cholesterol lesson:

  • LDL — helps form plaque that blocks your arteries
  • HDL — helps remove LDL”


So all in all, we want to get our fat from sources like nuts and avocado, not necessarily oils. Personally, I use PAM cooking spray which does have zero everything on the nutritional panel. However,  I realize that means there is artificial galore in the ingredients. Here again brings up the point of pros and cons to the elements of life.

Coconut oil is also great for topical skin purposes. It can help alleviate dry skin and add moisture. Some argue they don’t like the greasy texture.

Nutrition is a key component of our fitness journeys and the more informed we are, the better choices we can make. When I hear a trend, I research to help every BODY. Fuel your BODY how you want it to operate and let the journey be a learning experience along the way.





09 Jul

Exercise and sports begin at a young age with T-ball, soccer, swimming, and so on. Some children develop the necessary skills quickly, while others might take time to find the right fit for their interests. Parents like to see their children succeed, and maybe extra attention like hiring a trainer or private coaching lessons might take place. But is this extra physical training appropriate for children physically and/or psychologically?? Let’s take a look.

It’s important to clarify right away that strength training, not weight lifting can be beneficial for children. Truth be told: “This can put too much strain on young muscles, tendons and areas of cartilage that haven’t yet turned to bone (growth plates) — especially when proper technique is sacrificed in favor of lifting larger amounts of weight. For kids, light resistance and controlled movements are best — with a special emphasis on proper technique and safety. Your child can do many strength training exercises with his or her own body weight or inexpensive resistance tubing. Free weights and machine weights are other options” (http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/strength-training/art-20047758). Traditional physical education in schools does implement pushups, sit ups and pullups in the curriculum and specific state standard tests require these components. SO obviously children wouldn’t be put in harm’s way because schools are doing this.

But having an under developed body and power lifting or using excessive weights for resistance is not good for the young body. A child’s body is not designed for these movement patterns yet. It would be hard to pin point a proper age when weight lifting can/should take place, but post puberty would be best. We need our children to be active, but in the proper realm. The benefits of strength training for children are many (http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/strength-training/art-20047758) :

Done properly, strength training can:

  • Increase your child’s muscle strength and endurance
  • Help protect your child’s muscles and joints from sports-related injuries
  • Improve your child’s performance in nearly any sport, from dancing and figure skating to football and soccer
  • Develop proper techniques that your child can continue to use as he or she grows older

Keep in mind that strength training isn’t only for athletes. Even if your child isn’t interested in sports, strength training can:

  • Strengthen your child’s bones
  • Help promote healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • Help your child maintain a healthy weight
  • Improve your child’s confidence and self-esteem

In high school, my basketball game was taken to the next level when I did start weight lifting. Not many others girls were doing this, so my strength was noticeable. But I had the supervision and technique in place. Children have to establish the maturity to know pain vs. strain vs. exercise “feel”. Injury at a young start is no good. On our fitness journeys we do want to encourage our children to be active and maybe even participate with us, but understand the do’s and don’ts of course and ask me if you aren’t sure.

02 Jul


One of the fitness progress measurements and health standards used to indicate one’s weight range, is body fat. Fat is our energy storage warehouse that our body pulls from to meet the demands we place upon ourselves. Because every BODY is different, we see a range people who either carry too little, just the right amount, or an excessive amount of body. But what does this body fat mean in relation to our bodies and on our fitness journeys??

The scientific term for body fat is “adipose tissue”. It’s important to clarify that a person carries both fat pound and muscle pounds and a normal bathroom scale doesn’t differentiate between the two. I know that for myself, my weight might be higher than one assumes because of the muscle that I carry. This might put me in a different bracket on a chart that shows the health ranges of body weights. But body fat needs to be accounted for. On the reverse, a normal looking sized person may actually be unhealthy because the majority of their weight is fat not muscle. This would then put one at risk for medical problems. This goes to show that just because a person is “skinny” doesn’t mean they’re healthy.

When a person tells me they want to lose weight. I know that they want to lose fat, not muscle. Here is a good example of what this means: “Body fat percentage is simply the percentage of fat your body contains.  If you are 150 pounds and 10% fat, it means that your body consists of 15 pounds fat and 135 pounds lean body mass (bone, muscle, organ tissue, blood and everything else)”


Here is the standard chart:

General Body Fat Percentage Categories

Classification Women (% fat) Men (% fat)
Essential Fat 10-12% 2-4%
Athletes 14-20% 6-13%
Fitness 21-24% 14-17%
Acceptable 25-31% 18-25%
Obese 32% plus 25% plus

Another useful too would be:

  • Fat mass: Weight x body fat percentage
  • Lean mass: Weight – (weight x body fat percentage)


The scale doesn’t always show your weight in terms of good vs. bad pounds. Being realistic and understanding that losing body fat, not muscle is important. Often times quick fixes, cleanses, and really restrictive approaches to weight loss, yield water loss in weight, not fat. Having your body fat measured allows you to determine your goals and be realistic about how much and what type of weight you should lose. I hope this is informative for those of you who are stuck on that scale number. There is much more to weight loss than one thinks ?

02 Jul


As a business owner, fitness addict, health advocate, and professional natural bodybuilder, keeping my body fueled and functioning at peak performance is vital. I don’t ever chat supplements and don’t like to because of legal ramifications, but let me share with you about the greatness of Juice Plus which is whole food based nutrition. In my life, there are no sick days, there is no time for being sluggish, and I certainly want to workout at my best level day to day. So Juice Plus has been my solution for the past 9 years. I do sell this at the studio, but as a not-so-salesy type gal, I will lead by example again, and share with you about the product here.

We are told to have 17 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. But who does that?? Juicing was the popular craze to achieve this, but Juice Plus has been around much longer and is a cheaper, more convenient and effective method. Our bodies can only do so much, but we are responsible for taking care of ourselves via nutrition and activity to aid in our health. Simply stated, “Whole food based nutrition delivers powerful antioxidants that provide your body protection, because it relies on fruits and vegetables. According to the National Cancer Institute, antioxidants are “substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins C and E and other substances. Many of these antioxidant substances come from fruits and vegetables” (http://www.juiceplus.com/us/en/what-is-juice-plus/ingredients1).

I personally take the Orchard and Garden Blend which has the following ingredients:

  • Apple • Acerola Cherry • Beet • Cranberry • Date • Orange • Pineapple • Papaya • Peach • Prune • Broccoli • Brown Rice Bran • Cabbage • Carrot • Garlic • Kale • Oat Bran • Parsley • Spinach • Tomato •

Juice Plus has the research stacked behind it. This product has proven results in its ability to improve and aid with healthy gums, heart health, oxidative stress, skin, inflammation, and lung health (just to name a few). All this information is publicly available to read on their website http://www.juiceplus.com/us/en/clinical-research/clinical-research-new#


This is not a weight loss product which is a question that always arises for me. But in reality, if we did want to consume all the fruits and vegetables required, our sugar and carbohydrate intake would be quite high so we are finding a source that encompasses all of this for us. On my own fitness journey, I don’t take supplements just Juice Plus. No multivitamin is required. From a girl who has been in this fitness industry a long time and in the past I tried every fat burner, every everything to be cool with the other trainers, I know that having natural and whole foods the best approach. Not even the common cold has hit me in a long time. Feel free to inquire more and do your own research, and if interested let me know and we can start your Juice Plus today.

02 Jul


In the midst of your fitness journey, I’m aware that that during workouts I am giving you the guidance and structure of the hour. I realize that just because I use terminology for the layout of the plan, doesn’t mean you know what I am referring to. So the teacher in me (yes I have my teaching credential in P.E. and Health), says oooohhhhh that makes for a good lesson/blog. Here you have it…


Reps is the short name for repetitions: “the number of times to perform an exercise” (www.livestrong.com/article/153380-definition-of-reps-set/)

Example: If you did 12 bicep curls those 12 movements are the repetitions


This is how many times we repeat the exercise in its entirety.

Example: if you did 12 bicep curls, rested then did 12 more bicep curls that would be 2 sets of bicep curls


“used to express the heat output of an organism and the fuel or energy value of food” (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/calorie).


Humans require these 3 main components: Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats

Carbohydrates: “Carbohydrates are present in varying amounts in most of the foods you eat including fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, legumes, milk and milk products, and foods containing added sugar such as candy, soda and other sweets. Carbohydrates are present in food in the form of starch, sugar and fiber” (http://www.fitday.com/fitness-articles/nutrition/carbs/what-are-carbohydrates-an-easy-to-understand-definition.html).

There are simple and complex carbs. They should make up 45 – 65% of your daily calorie intake

1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories

Protein: “a nutrient found in food (as meat, milk, eggs, and beans) that is made up of many amino acids joined together, is a necessary part of the diet, and is essential for normal cell structure and function” (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/protein).

You should have: “The DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight, or 0.36 grams per pound. This amounts to: 56 grams per day for the average sedentary man. 46 grams per day for the average sedentary woman” (https://authoritynutrition.com/how-much-protein-per-day/).

1 gram of protein = 4 calories

Fats: “Fats are nutrients that give you energy. Fats have 9 calories in each gram. Fats help in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Fats are either saturated or unsaturated, and most foods with fat have both types” (http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/types-of-fats-topic-overview#1).

1 gram of fat = 9 calories

These are just the basics. So now you know some of my jargon. I enjoy sharing and educating regarding elements of your fitness journey. The more you know, the better your choices will be knowing the reason behind your WHY. Ask away if you have further vocab questions.